Brexit: All you want to know concerning the UNITED KINGDOM leaving the ecu


Here’s an easy-to-take into account guide to Brexit – starting with the fundamentals, then a look on the negotiations, adopted by means of a spread of answers to questions we’ve got been despatched.

What’s going down now?

the united kingdom has voted to depart the eu Union. It’s scheduled to depart at 11pm UK time on Friday 29 March, 2019. Talks were taking place on 3 aspects of ways Brexit will paintings – specializing in how so much the united kingdom owes the european, what occurs to the Northern Ireland border and what happens to UK electorate residing elsewhere in the eu and EUROPEAN voters living in the uk. the united kingdom wants to discuss long run trade relations – and a plan for a year “transition” period to easy the way in which to submit-Brexit family members. But the ecu said they would now not discuss the longer term till sufficient progress has been made on the other problems.

After months of negotiations the two sides have simply reached settlement on those 3 issues, with a summit of ECU leaders on 14-15 December now set to provide the cross-beforehand for talks to begin on what kind of relationship the united kingdom and the european may have after Brexit.

What does Brexit mean?

It Is a phrase that has grow to be used as a shorthand method of saying the united kingdom leaving the european – merging the words Britain and go out to get Brexit, within the similar means as a possible Greek go out from the euro was dubbed Grexit in the previous.

Why is Britain leaving the eu Union?

A referendum – a vote during which everyone (or nearly everyone) of balloting age can take part – was once hung on Thursday 23 June, 2016, to determine whether or not the united kingdom should leave or stay in the european Union. Leave gained by 51.9% to FORTY EIGHT.1%. The referendum turnout was 71.EIGHT%, with more than 30 million other folks balloting.

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Britain got a new Prime Minister – Theresa May. The Previous house secretary took over from David Cameron, who introduced he was resigning on the day he lost the referendum. Like Mr Cameron, Mrs Might was towards Britain leaving the eu but she played just a very low-key function within the marketing campaign and was by no means noticed as so much of an enthusiast for the ecu. She turned into PM with out facing a whole Conservative leadership contest after her key opponents from what have been the Depart facet pulled out.

Where does Theresa May stand on Brexit?

Theresa Would Possibly used to be towards Brexit through the referendum campaign however is now in favour of it as a result of she says it’s what the British other folks need. Her key message has been that “Brexit manner Brexit” and she or he brought on the two year technique of leaving the european on 29 March, 2017. She set out her negotiating objectives in a letter to the eu council president Donald Tusk. She defined her plans for a transition length after Brexit in a big speech in Florence, Italy.

How did the snap election change issues?

Symbol copyright Getty Pictures

Theresa May stunned almost everybody after the 2017 Easter Financial Institution Vacation through calling an election for EIGHT June (it have been due in 2020). She stated she desired to make stronger her hand in Brexit negotiations with Ecu leaders. She said Labour, the SNP and other opposition parties – and members of the house of Lords – might attempt to block and frustrate her technique. On The Other Hand Mrs May didn’t build up her celebration’s seats in the Commons and she or he ended up weakened, having to rely on toughen from the ten MPs from Northern Ireland’s Democratic Unionist Celebration. You’ll Be Able To get more detail at the 2017 election here.

What has came about to the united kingdom economic system for the reason that Brexit vote?

David Cameron, his Chancellor George Osborne and many other senior figures who wanted to keep in the eu expected an instantaneous economic trouble if the united kingdom voted to leave and it’s true that the pound slumped the day after the referendum – and remains round 10% decrease in opposition to the greenback and 15% down against the euro.

But predictions of immediate doom had been wrong, with the united kingdom economy expected to have grown 1.EIGHT% in 2016, 2nd handiest to Germany’s 1.9% among the global’s G7 top industrialised countries. the uk economic system has persisted to develop at virtually the similar price in 2017. Inflation has risen in view that June 2016 to face at 3.9%, however unemployment has endured to fall, to face at a 42 yr low of 4.3%. Annual space price will increase have fallen from 9.4% in June 2016 however have been still at an inflation-beating FIVE% in the 12 months to August 2017, consistent with reliable ONS figures.

Brexit negotiations

They in the end, formally, started a yr after the referendum, on 19 June, 2017. Here’s A image from that first session:

Image copyright Reuters

the uk and EUROPEAN negotiating groups meet face-to-face for one week each month, with a few further sessions additionally thrown in ahead of EU summits. Their first duties were seeking to get an agreement on the rights of UK and ECU expat citizens after Brexit, reaching a determine for the quantity of money the uk will need to pay on leaving, the so-known as “divorce invoice”, and what occurs to the Northern Eire border. Settlement on these issues was once reached on 8 December: ‘Breakthrough’ deal in Brexit talks

What is the ecu Union?

The Ecu Union – incessantly referred to as the ecu – is an economic and political partnership regarding 28 Eu nations (click on here when you want to see the entire checklist). It All Started after International Battle to foster economic co-operation, with the theory that countries which trade in combination are much more likely to circumvent going to struggle with one another.

It has since grown to change into a “single market” permitting items and those to move around, mainly as though the member states have been one u . s . a .. It has its own foreign money, the euro, which is utilized by 19 of the member nations, its own parliament and it now units rules in a large vary of spaces – together with on the setting, shipping, client rights and even things similar to mobile phone charges. Click here for a beginners’ information to how the european works.

Theresa Would Possibly arrange a central authority division, headed by means of veteran Conservative MP and Go Away campaigner David Davis, to take accountability for Brexit. Former defence secretary, Liam Fox, who additionally campaigned to leave the eu, was once given the brand new task of international trade secretary and Boris Johnson, who used to be a leader of the reputable Leave campaign, is international secretary. These three are each set to play roles in negotiations with the eu and search out new international agreements, even if Mrs Would Possibly, as high minister will play the key function. Who Is who guide to both sides’ negotiators.

How lengthy will it take for Britain to depart the european?

The Item 50 process lasts two years so the goal is for the uk to depart the european on 29 March 2019. ECU regulation still stands in the uk till it ceases being a member. However there is lately uncertainty about how ultimate the holiday will be on that day – a bunch of UK and EU figures again the idea of having a “transition” duration of up to three years to allow a smooth implementation of no matter what Brexit deal is negotiated and minimise disruption to businesses and holidaymakers and so forth.

Why may Brexit take so long?

Unpicking 43 years of treaties and agreements covering lots of various subjects was once by no means going to be an easy job. It Is further difficult by the fact that it hasn’t ever been done sooner than and negotiators will, to a few extent, be making it up as they cross alongside. The put up-Brexit business deal is prone to be probably the most complicated a part of the negotiation as it wishes the unanimous approval of greater than 30 national and nearby parliaments across Europe, a few of whom would possibly wish to hang referendums.

So why can’t the united kingdom just reduce all ties in March 2019?

the uk may just lower all ties, but Theresa May and others would like to circumvent one of these “cliff-side” the place current regulations on things like move-border business and commute between the united kingdom and the european ends in a single day. they think it could harm the economy.

How are talks going?

As mentioned already, there has now been agreement on the 3 ‘separation problems’ of the rights of ECU voters in the united kingdom and UNITED KINGDOM voters in the eu; the ‘divorce bill’ the uk can pay the ecu and also preparations for the Northern Ireland border. Talks are actually set to move directly to future members of the family, including business, among the united kingdom and EU after Brexit. These talks are more likely to focal point on the terms for a ‘transition duration’ of round two years to clean the modification in family members.

What happens if there’s no deal with the ecu?

Top Minister Theresa Would Possibly says leaving the european without a deal by any means can be better than signing the united kingdom as much as a bad one. Without an agreement on industry, the uk would must perform underneath International Trade Company regulations, which could mean customs exams and price lists on items in addition as longer border check for guests.

There are also questions on what could occur to Britain’s position as international financial centre and the land border among the united kingdom and the Republic of eire. there is additionally concern that Brits dwelling abroad in the european may just lose residency rights and get admission to to unfastened emergency well being care. This Is a full explanation of what ‘no deal’ may just imply

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Prime Minister Theresa Might has mentioned considered one of the principle messages she has taken from the Go Away vote is that the British folks need to see a discount in immigration. She has mentioned this will be a focus of Brexit negotiations as she continues to be devoted to getting web migration – the difference among the numbers coming into and leaving the rustic – all the way down to a “sustainable” level, which she defines as being below ONE HUNDRED,000 a year.

the rate of increase within the measurement of england’s population has slowed considerably because the Brexit vote. This has in large part been pushed via an increase in emigration from the united kingdom by way of voters of Poland and the opposite East and Vital Eu countries. There Have Been still 230,000 more other folks coming to are living in the united kingdom than leaving within the 12 months to June 2017, in keeping with the most recent estimates – nonetheless way above the federal government’s objective of ONE HUNDRED,000 but 80,000 under the former 12 months.

May Just there be a second referendum?

it sort of feels extremely not likely. Both the Conservatives and the Labour Party have ruled out some other referendum, arguing that it would be an undemocratic breach of believe with the British people who clearly voted to go away.

Will MPs get a vote at the ultimate Brexit deal?

Sure. Theresa Would Possibly has promised there can be a Commons and Lords vote to approve no matter what deal the uk and the remaining of the ecu agree on the end of the 2 yr process. This vote is lately proposed as a “take it or depart it” one. Labour needs the vote to have the choice of sending the united kingdom team back to renegotiate. It Is worth citing that any deal also has to be agreed by the european Parliament – with British MEPs getting a chance to vote on it there.

Will i need a visa to travel to the eu?

the united kingdom govt desires to keep visa-loose shuttle to the uk for EUROPEAN guests after Brexit and it’s hoping this will be reciprocated, which means UK citizens will continue to give you the option to visit ECU countries for short periods with out looking for authentic permission to commute.

If guests from EUROPEAN international locations desired to work, look at or settle in the united kingdom they would need to observe for permission underneath the proposals.

No settlement has been reached yet, on the other hand. If it’s determined that EUROPEAN voters will want visas to return to the united kingdom in the long run, then UK electorate will want visas to commute to the european.

Image copyright Reuters

Will I still have the option to use my passport?

Yes. It’s a British report – there may be no such factor as an ecu passport, so your passport will stay the similar. In thought, the federal government may just, if it sought after, decide to change the color, which is recently standardised for ECU countries.

Has any other member state ever left the ecu?

No country state has ever left the ecu. However Greenland, one in all Denmark’s overseas territories, held a referendum in 1982, after gaining a better degree of self government, and voted through 52% to 48% to leave, which it duly did after a duration of negotiation. The BBC’s Carolyn Quinn visited Greenland to find out how they did it.

What does this mean for Scotland?

Symbol copyright Reuters Image caption Nicola Sturgeon says a new independence referendum in Scotland is likely

Scotland’s First Minister Nicola Sturgeon mentioned within the wake of the Depart end result that it used to be “democratically unacceptable” that Scotland faced being taken out of the eu when it voted to remain. Ms Sturgeon has formally asked for permission for a second referendum to be held. She had wanted the vote to be held among the fall of 2018 and spring 2019, however after dropping seats on the 2017 general election she has positioned her plans on grasp without a referendum most likely until 2021. Theresa May has mentioned a 2d referendum won’t be held throughout the Brexit process.

What does it imply for Northern Ireland?

The land border between Northern Ireland and EUROPEAN member the Republic of eire has been a key a part of the Brexit talks. there’s lately a standard commute house between the uk and the Republic. Like Scotland, Northern Eire voted to remain in the european in closing 12 months’s referendum. the result in Northern Ireland was 56% for Stay and 44% for Go Away.

each side agreed they didn’t need a go back to a “onerous border” – that means no bodily infrastructure, similar to customs posts. but the wording to agree on this proved tricky.

What has been agreed is that the united kingdom ‘will take care of complete alignment with the ones laws of the internal Marketplace and the Customs Union which, now or within the long run, beef up North-South cooperation, the all island economic system and the safety of the 1998 Agreement’.

The BBC’s Chris Buckler has explained the problems concerning the Northern Eire border right here.

How so much has Brexit price so far and how a lot will it price by the tip?

there may be much debate about the lengthy-time period prices and advantages to the uk financial system of Brexit – however what we do recognise for certain is that the european desires the united kingdom to settle any remarkable bills sooner than it leaves.

There were no official estimates revealed of the dimensions of the bill, which covers such things as pension bills to EU officials, the cost of moving London-primarily based EUROPEAN agencies and outstanding ECU finances commitments.

however the figure has been concept prone to be certainly one of up to 50bn euros (£44bn). We Don’t yet realize over what number of years that shall be or what exactly it would include and Downing Boulevard says they’re confident it will finally end up being below £40bn.

the uk may just depart without any Brexit “divorce invoice” deal but that might most certainly mean everyone finishing up in courtroom. If compromise will also be accomplished, and if cost of the invoice were to be unfold over many years, the amounts involved may not be that important economically.

Why pay anything else?

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Newshounds and writers on social media have greeted the reintroduction of accountability-unfastened gross sales as an “upside” or “silver lining” of Brexit. As with most Brexit results, whether or not this will occur relies on how negotiations with the european play out – whether or not the “customs union” agreement among Britain and the eu is ended or endured.

Will EHIC cards nonetheless be legitimate?

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In The Event You are already residing in any other EU u . s . on the day the united kingdom leaves the bloc, your EHIC card – which entitles guests to state-supplied medical assist for any situation or injury that requires urgent remedy, in another u . s . a . inside the ecu, to boot as a few non-EU nations – will proceed to work.

After that date, for EUROPEAN voters wishing to go back and forth to the uk or UNITED KINGDOM citizens wishing to go back and forth to the eu, it is uncertain approximately what will occur because no deal has yet been reached.

Read extra right here.

Will cars need new quantity plates?

not really, says BBC Europe correspondent Chris Morris, as a result of there’s no EU-extensive legislation on vehicle registration or automobile quantity puts, and the eu flag symbol is a voluntary identifier and not obligatory. The DVLA says there has been no discussion about what could happen to plates with the flag if the uk voted to depart.

May MPs block an ecu exit?

May Just the necessary law pass the Commons, given that so much of MPs in the present Parliament – all SNP and Lib Dems, nearly all Labour and many Conservatives – were in favour of staying? The referendum result is now not legally binding – Parliament still has to cross the regulations with a view to get Britain out of the 28 country bloc, beginning with the repeal of the 1972 Ecu Communities Act. The withdrawal agreement additionally has to be ratified by Parliament – the home of Lords and/or the Commons may vote in opposition to ratification, according to a home of Commons library report.

So in thought they might block the united kingdom’s ECU exit. But in practice that may be seen as not possible given that a majority of people voted for Brexit in the referendum.

Will leaving the ecu mean we do not need to abide through the ecu Courtroom of Human Rights?

The Ecu Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg is not a ecu Union establishment. It used to be set up via the Council of Europe, which has FORTY SEVEN members together with Russia and Ukraine. So quitting the ecu will not exempt the united kingdom from its decisions.

The Conservatives are dedicated to sticking with the Human Rights Act which calls for UK courts to treat the ECHR as environment legal precedents for the uk in the course of the Brexit procedure.

What about the european Court of Justice?

The Court Docket of Justice of the european Union – to present it its full name – is the ecu’s best felony authority. It’s based in Luxembourg. It Is an entirely other thing to the european Court of Human Rights (ECHR).

It Is the ECHR now not the ECJ that has often disenchanted British politicians via making it tougher, as an example, to deport terrorist suspects. The ECJ interprets and enforces the principles of the only market, settling disputes among member nations over issues like loose movement and trade. It’s on the centre of pretty much everything the eu does and it having the facility over UNITED KINGDOM actions has been a key issue for the ones arguing for the united kingdom to leave to the european to regain full sovereignty.

High Minister Theresa Would Possibly has vowed that Britain won’t be under the “direct” jurisdiction of the ECJ after Brexit. However the united kingdom govt has not dominated out final under its jurisdiction throughout the Brexit transition period that may be deliberate after March 2019.

After that, there’ll need to be a new mechanism for settling disputes among the united kingdom and the european but what form that take has but to be made up our minds. There has been communicate of an ombudsman, or some other 3rd celebration, being appointed to settle disagreements.

The initial ranges of the Brexit deal, printed on 8 December 2017, do give restricted powers to the ECJ in terms of ECU citizens residing in the united kingdom for up to eight years.

Will the uk give you the chance to rejoin the eu within the long term?

BBC Europe editor Katya Adler says the united kingdom might must get started from scratch and not using a rebate, and enter accession talks with the eu. Each member state could need to agree to the uk re-joining. But she says with elections looming in other places in Europe, different leaders might not be beneficiant in opposition to any UNITED KINGDOM calls for. New participants are required to undertake the euro as their foreign money, when they meet the related standards, despite the fact that the uk may try to negotiate an opt-out.

Who wanted the united kingdom to depart the eu?

the uk Independence Celebration, which received nearly 4 million votes – THIRTEEN% of those forged – within the 2015 common election, however who noticed their vote collapse to a few quarter of that at this 12 months’s election, has campaigned for many years for Britain’s exit from the ecu. They were joined in their name during the referendum marketing campaign by means of about part the Conservative Celebration’s MPs, including Boris Johnson and five individuals of the then Cabinet. A handful of Labour MPs and northern Eire celebration the DUP had been additionally in favour of leaving.

What have been their purposes for in need of the united kingdom to go away?

They stated Britain was once being held again via the european, which they said imposed too many rules on trade and charged billions of kilos a year in club fees for little in return. in addition they sought after the united kingdom to make all of its personal regulations again, rather than being created through shared resolution making with other EUROPEAN countries.

Immigration was once additionally a large factor for Brexit supporters, They wanted Britain to take again full control of its borders and decrease the number of other folks coming here to reside and/or paintings.

one in all the primary concepts of EUROPEAN club is “unfastened movement”, this means that you do not wish to get a visa to head and live in some other ECU us of a. The Depart campaign also objected to the idea of “ever nearer union” among ECU member states and what they see as moves in opposition to the introduction of a “United States of Europe”.

Who sought after the united kingdom to stick in the eu?

Then High Minister David Cameron used to be the top voice in the Remain campaign, after attaining an settlement with different Eu Union leaders that may have modified the phrases of england’s membership had the rustic voted to stick in.

He said the deal would supply Britain “different” status and help deal with a few of the issues British other folks mentioned they didn’t like about the eu, like high levels of immigration – however critics said the deal may make little distinction.

Sixteen participants of Mr Cameron’s Cupboard, including the girl who could substitute him as PM, Theresa Might, additionally sponsored staying in. The Conservative Birthday Celebration used to be break up at the factor and officially remained neutral in the campaign. The Labour Celebration, Scottish National Celebration, Plaid Cymru, The Fairway Celebration and the Liberal Democrats have been all in favour of staying in.

The then US president Barack Obama also wanted Britain to stay in the ecu, as did the leaders of different EU nations akin to France and Germany.

What have been their reasons for short of the uk to stick?

The Ones campaigning for Britain to stay in the ecu mentioned it were given a big spice up from club – it makes promoting things to different ECU nations more straightforward and, they argued, the glide of immigrants, most of whom are younger and prepared to work, fuels economic growth and is helping pay for public services.

they also mentioned Britain’s status within the international could be broken through leaving and that we’re safer as part of the 28 country club, as opposed to going it alone.

What about companies?

Massive business – with a couple of exceptions – tended to be in favour of britain staying in the european as it makes it more uncomplicated for them to move money, other folks and merchandise around the world.

Given the crucial function of London as a monetary centre, there may be interest in how many jobs is also misplaced to other hubs in the ecu. A Few UK exporters say they’ve had larger orders or enquiries on account of the fall in the price of the pound. Others are much less constructive, fearing merchandise for the ecu marketplace might have to be made at plants in the eu.

Image copyright Reuters Image caption Boris Johnson was one of the most outstanding Go Away campaigners

Who led the rival facets in the campaign?

Britain Stronger in Europe – the primary move-birthday celebration group campaigning for Britain to stay in the ecu used to be headed through former Marks and Spencer chairman Lord Rose. It was sponsored via key figures from the Conservative Birthday Party, together with Prime Minister David Cameron and Chancellor George Osborne, so much Labour MPs, including party leader Jeremy Corbyn and Alan Johnson, who ran the Labour In for Britain campaign, the Lib Dems, Plaid Cymru, the Alliance birthday celebration and the SDLP in Northern Ireland, and The Golf Green Birthday Celebration. Who funded the marketing campaign: Britain More Potent in Europe raised £6.88m, boosted by way of two donations totalling £2.3m from the supermarket mogul and Labour peer Lord Sainsbury. Different distinguished Remain donors integrated hedge fund supervisor David Harding (£750,000), businessman and Travelex founder Lloyd Dorfman (£500,000) and the Tower Restricted Partnership (£500,000). Learn a Who Is Who information. Who else campaigned to remain: The SNP ran its personal remain marketing campaign in Scotland as it did not wish to percentage a platform with the Conservatives. A Number Of smaller teams also registered to marketing campaign. Vote Leave – A cross-party marketing campaign that has the backing of senior Conservatives equivalent to Michael Gove and Boris Johnson plus a handful of Labour MPs, including Gisela Stuart and Graham Stringer, and UKIP’s Douglas Carswell and Suzanne Evans, and the DUP in Northern Eire. Former Tory chancellor Lord Lawson and SDP founder Lord Owen had been additionally involved. It had a string of affiliated teams equivalent to Farmers for Britain, Muslims for Britain and Out and Proud, a homosexual anti-EUROPEAN workforce, aimed at building improve in numerous groups. Who funded the campaign: Vote Go Away raised £2.78m. Its largest supporter was businessman Patrick Barbour, who gave £500,000. Former Conservative Party treasurer Peter Cruddas gave a £350,000 donation and construction mogul Terence Adams handed over £300,000. Learn a Who Is Who guide. Who else campaigned to go away: UKIP chief Nigel Farage used to be now not a part of Vote Go Away. His party ran its own campaign. The Industry Union and Socialist Coalition also ran its own out campaign. A Few smaller groups additionally registered to marketing campaign.

Will the ecu nonetheless use English?

Yes, says BBC Europe editor Katya Adler. There’ll still be 27 different ECU states within the bloc, and others desirous to join in the long term, and the typical language tends to be English – “a lot to France’s chagrin”, she says.

Will Brexit harm product protection?

not really, is the answer. it would depend on whether or not the uk determined to get rid of present safety standards. despite the fact that that happened any corporate desirous to export to the eu may must agree to its safety laws, and it’s exhausting to assume an organization could want to produce two batches of the similar products.

Right Here are a diffusion of questions sent in – you’ll ask yours by means of the form at the end of this page

Which MPs had been for staying and which for leaving?

the nice news for Edward, from Cambridge, who requested this question, is we had been working on precisely such a listing. Click On here for the newest version.

How so much does the uk give a contribution to the eu and the way a lot do we get in return?

In resolution to this question from Nancy from Hornchurch – the united kingdom is one of 10 member states who pay extra into the european price range than they get out. Only France and Germany give a contribution extra. In 2014/15, Poland was once the largest beneficiary, followed by means of Hungary and Greece.

Symbol copyright Thinkstock Image caption the united kingdom is certainly one of 10 member states who pay more into the european budget than they get out

the uk additionally will get an annual rebate that was negotiated via Margaret Thatcher and a reimbursement, in the form of regional development can provide and payments to farmers, which delivered as much as £4.6bn in 2014/15. in step with the newest Treasury figures, the united kingdom’s internet contribution for 2014/15 was once £EIGHT.8bn – nearly double what it was once in 2009/10.

The Nationwide Audit Place Of Job, the usage of a special formula which takes into consideration EU cash paid on to non-public sector corporations and universities to fund research, and measured over the european’s monetary 12 months, shows the uk’s internet contribution for 2014 was once £FIVE.7bn. Read extra number crunching from Fact Test.

If I retire to Spain or any other ECU u . s . a . will my healthcare prices nonetheless be coated?

David, from East Sussex, is anxious about what’s going to happen to his retirement plans. that is one among the ones issues the place it’s not possible to say definitively what might occur. on the second, the huge British expat group in Spain will get free get right of entry to to Spanish GPs and their medical care is paid for through the NHS. once they turn into permanent citizens Spain pays for their hospital therapy.

In every other ECU countries equivalent to France expats of running age are expected to pay the similar healthcare costs as locals however once they reach retirement age their scientific expenses are paid by means of the NHS.

If Britain is still in the single marketplace, or the ecu Economic Area as it is recognized, it will be able to proceed with this arrangement, in line with a home of Commons library analysis note. If Britain has to barter business deals with person member states, it may favor to continue buying expats’ healthcare throughout the NHS or decide that they’d have to quilt their very own costs in the event that they proceed to live abroad, if the rustic the place they are living declines to do so.

what is going to occur to secure species?

Dee, from Launceston, desired to know what would occur to ECU rules masking secure species equivalent to bats in the experience of england leaving the european. the answer is that they’d stay in place, to start with at least. After the Leave vote, the federal government will most probably overview all EU-derived regulations within the two years top up to the reliable go out date to look which ones to keep or scrap.

The standing of Special Spaces of Conservation and Unique Coverage Spaces, which can be targeted through the ecu, can be reviewed to peer what alternative protections may well be applied. the same process would practice to Eu Protected Species regulation, which relate to bats and their habitats.

the federal government could wish to avoid a legislative vacuum because of the repeal of EU rules sooner than new UK regulations are in position – it will also proceed to abide by way of other global agreements overlaying environmental coverage.

How so much cash will the united kingdom retailer via adjustments to migrant child advantages and welfare payments?

Martin, from Poole, in Dorset, wanted to understand what taxpayers could have gotten back from the convenience curbs negotiated by way of David Cameron in Brussels. We Don’t precisely know for the reason that main points have been by no means labored out. HM Earnings and Customs advised approximately 20,000 EU nationals receive child get advantages bills in appreciate of 34,000 kids of their united states of beginning at an estimated value of about £30m.

however the total saving might had been significantly less than that because Mr Cameron did not get the blanket ban he sought after. Instead, payments would were associated with the cost of living within the nations where the kids reside. David Cameron said as many as FORTY% of ECU migrant households who come to Britain may lose a standard of £6,000 a yr of in-work advantages while his “emergency brake” used to be carried out. The DWP estimated between 128,700 and 155,100 other folks can be affected. however the cuts could were phased in. New arrivals wouldn’t have got tax credit and other in-work benefits straight away however might have progressively received get admission to to them over a 4 year period at a rate that had no longer been decided. The plan won’t ever be carried out now.

Will we be barred from the Eurovision Music Contest?

Image copyright BBC/Man Levy Image caption To Participate within the Eurovision Track Contest nations want to be a member of the eu Broadcasting Union, that’s impartial of the eu

Sophie from Peterborough, who asks the question, need not fear. we’ve consulted Alasdair Rendall, president of the uk Eurovision fan club, who says: “All taking part nations should be a member of the ecu Broadcasting Union. The EBU – that’s completely unbiased of the european – includes countries each within and outside of the european, and in addition comprises international locations such as Israel which might be outside of Europe. Certainly the uk started participating in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1957, 16 years before joining the then EEC.”

what will occur to pet passports?

the answer to Alan Rippington’s query, the european Commission says, is that pet passports will, like the whole thing else, form part of the negotiations.

the uk presented the pet passport scheme in 2000, replacing the former quarantine laws. It approach you and your dog, cat or ferret can trip between the united kingdom and the eu (and other participating nations) as lengthy as it has a passport, a microchip and has been vaccinated against rabies.

Of path, till the uk in truth leaves the eu, the scheme keeps as normal.

The Division for Setting, Meals and Rural Affairs stated: “the uk has a protracted historical past of world-prime animal welfare and biosecurity requirements, which we are devoted to safeguarding and making improvements to, securing the most productive deal for Britain as we go away the ecu.”

Has Brexit made area costs fall?

Symbol copyright PA

to this point, the solution is no. However there has been anecdotal evidence of house costs falling on the most sensible of the market in Primary London and the yearly build up in the worth of belongings has fallen from 9.4% at the time of the referendum to 4.9% a year later.

What is the ‘red tape’ that warring parties of the european whinge about?

Ged, from Liverpool, suspects “pink tape” is a euphemism for employment rights and environmental coverage. in keeping with the Open Europe think tank, 4 of the top five costliest EUROPEAN laws are both employment or atmosphere-comparable. the united kingdom renewable energy technique, which the assume-tank says prices £4.7bn a yr, tops the checklist. The running time directive (£4.2bn a 12 months) – which limits the operating week to 48 hours – and the brief company staff directive (£2.1bn a year), giving brief staff a lot of the similar rights as permanent ones – also are at the checklist.

Most of the eu-derived rules on the uk’s statute books will probably be copied throughout into UNITED KINGDOM law so that businesses can proceed to operate on the day Britain leaves the eu, in March 2019. Future governments will then give you the option to amend or scrap them.

Brexit may additionally generate “purple tape” of its personal – if the united kingdom leaves the only market and the customs union, businesses may just face more forms as they move borders into EU countries.

Will Britain be celebration to the Transatlantic Business and Investment Partnership?

Ste, in Bolton, asked approximately this. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – or TTIP – recently beneath negotiation between the european and United States may create the most important free industry area the sector has ever noticed.

Cheerleaders for TTIP, together with former PM David Cameron, believed it could make American imports inexpensive and boost British exports to the us to the track of £10bn a year.

But many at the left, together with Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn, fear it’ll shift more power to multinational firms, undermine public services and products, break food requirements and threaten basic rights.

US President Donald Trump is not a fan of the TTIP settlement, this means that it is now observed as not going to be agreed – however no matter what occurs, while the united kingdom quits the european it’ll now not be part of TTIP and could have to barter its own trade deal with the us.

What impact will leaving the eu have on the NHS?

Paddy, from Widnes, wanted to know the way leaving the eu will impact the collection of medical doctors we have now and impact the NHS.

This changed into a subject matter in the referendum debate after the Leave marketing campaign claimed the money Britain sends to the eu, which it claimed was once £350m every week, might be spent at the NHS instead. The BBC’s Truth Test group looked into this claim.

Before the vote Well Being Secretary Jeremy Hunt warned that leaving the eu may lead to funds cuts and an exodus of in another country doctors and nurses. The Depart campaign dismissed his intervention as “scaremongering” and insisted that ECU membership fees could be spent on family products and services just like the NHS.

Since the referendum spending on the NHS has persisted on the same degree as deliberate. EUROPEAN citizens working for the NHS are anticipated to get the precise to stay in the uk, even if details on ECU electorate in the united kingdom and UNITED KINGDOM citizens in different places in the ecu are but to be finalised (see earlier answer).

Sally Miller bought a house in Spain nine years in the past and plans to retire there within the next 5 years. She asked how Brexit will affect this.

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The BBC’s Kevin Connolly says:

The Issue of unfastened motion – the rights of EUROPEAN citizens to live and work in the uk – was an enormous factor in the Brexit referendum in fact, and will be a large part of the exit negotiations.

We Have heard quite a bit from the British aspect already with the federal government announcing that securing the status and rights of EUROPEAN nationals in the united kingdom and UNITED KINGDOM nationals in the ecu is one among the federal government’s earliest priorities, and specifically that it is in search of a reciprocal deal.

So chances are you’ll really feel the temper track is encouraging however all we can say evidently is that, whilst there are no promises yet, it will be a large a part of the Brexit negotiations to return.

Jonathan Eaton is a Briton residing in the Netherlands with his spouse, who is Dutch. He asks what rights to advantages and housing he can have if he has to return to the uk.

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BBC assistant political editor Norman Smith says:

The Quick solution is there may be no easy accessibility to benefits. because it stands on the second, Brexit aside, you may have to go what’s referred to as a routine place of dwelling test which used to be offered in 1994 and applies to British citizens simply as EUROPEAN citizens.

the principles had been tightened up which means for a few benefits, if you were out of the country you can’t even take into consideration making use of for the check for a few months. for example, whilst it involves jobseeker’s allowance, you can’t even take the check to apply for the ones advantages for 3 months. And that was once done to prevent EUROPEAN voters coming right here and simply getting on advantages instantly.

After 3 months, you’ll take the check which looks at your English language talents, what sort of efforts you made to seek out work sooner than coming to the united kingdom. It also considers how strong a tie you need to the uk, whether you could have property or circle of relatives right here and what your intentions are in phrases of staying and dealing, or returning.

But once you may have taken the check, if you happen to pass it then you definately have to be eligible to apply for a variety of benefits, as lengthy as you meet the usual necessities in phrases of income and showing you might be in search of work. that may be prone to continue once we transfer totally on to Common Credit Score.

The Only sort of unknown within the entire machine is what occurs with Brexit negotiations, in phrases of making sure the rights of British nationals out of the country.

And we merely do not know what a good way to involve and whether or not in any method that may affect on how quickly you’ll be able to observe for advantages while you come back to Britain.

Will I have to buy a brand new passport and using licence, and can my rights to make use of them freely across Europe be taken away from me after Brexit, asks Francis Lee.

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Kevin Connolly says:

at the moment UNITED KINGDOM passports elevate the phrases Eu Union and British using licences have the blue square with yellow flags of the eu. so they can possibly modification after Brexit but it seems most probably that the change will probably be phased in so that you’ll merely get files with the brand new layout whilst the antique ones expire. that’s what came about, I appear to understand that, while the united kingdom joined the european. the rest would be expensive and chance flooding the device, after all.

the right to use them freely is a fascinating question. when we speak about regulations on freedom of movement we typically mean the liberty to live and paintings in another united states. If Britain poses restrictions on the european in that recognize then it may be expecting a few kind of response.

But in phrases of tourism there are various non-EUROPEAN nations whose voters can talk over with the uk for as much as NINETY days and not using a visa. And, as part of the Brexit negotiations, you would expect an identical preparations to be discussed for the uk.

either side want each and every others’ tourists and, in the end, if you can force a automobile within the Usa on a UNITED KINGDOM licence then it does not seem fanciful to assume that you’ll have the option to do the same in Europe in long run.

It’s very transparent that the PM and the government need to depart the tyranny of the european Courtroom of Justice. Why has leaving the eu Court of Human Rights (an supplier way more hated than the ECJ) been omitted, asks Barry Fryer.

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Kevin Connolly says:

other courts here after all, so two other bits of politics. Crucially, the eu Court Docket of Human Rights isn’t an eu institution and that is the reason why discussions about leaving it haven’t shaped a key a part of the Brexit debate.

The Eu Courtroom of Justice – the ECJ – is one of the main establishments of the eu Union and administers EU legislation. So, even as it would have a role in supervising a long term industry deal, a part of the objective of Brexit was to take away the uk from the ECJ’s jurisdiction.

The European Court of Human Rights which, as Barry issues out, may also be even more debatable, is a body set up not by way of the eu but through member states of the Council of Europe, a separate establishment which contains international locations that are not EUROPEAN participants.

It’s this courtroom which has produced rulings which were arguable in the united kingdom, including blocking the extradition of Abu Qatada and setting up the right of serving prisoners to vote in elections – and leaving the eu gained’t change anything right here.

Adrian Wallis runs a small electronics corporate and wants to learn about export price lists after Brexit, and what they’d imply for his business.

Kevin Connolly says:

As long as Britain has been in the ecu we haven’t actually talked a lot about tariffs. That’s because all industry inside the ecu Economic Space is tariff-free. On best of that the eu has business agreements with FIFTY TWO other countries as well.

After Brexit, Britain goes to have to negotiate new deals all on its own. That’s each an issue and a chance.

for example you can use price lists towards international imports to protect businesses you care about, as the european does with agricultural produce, however you do then run the risk of retaliation out of your trading partners.

The key body in all of that is the world Trade Enterprise and at the moment the uk is just a member by means of its club of the european.

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One bit of excellent news is that the united kingdom will mechanically become a member in its own proper as quickly because it leaves the eu.

That matters as a result of within the period while the uk is negotiating a new trade deal with the ecu, and that would take years, trade would be performed under WTO rules.

on the moment, for non-meals items, that means a standard tariff of approximately 2.3%.

But suppose the ecu were to impose a 10% tariff on UK car imports, for instance. Neatly, then the uk may just impose the same tariff on German and French vehicles.

In conception, an economist would say that creates a situation where everyone has an incentive to tackle a greater deal for their consumers.

The snag is that this stuff take years, if now not decades. they have a tendency to be done on a country-via-u . s . and sector-by way of-sector basis.

So if Adrian is waiting to seek out out the consequences for his trade, then I Am afraid he is going to need to be patient.

Maybe very, very patient.

What have an effect on will leaving the european Union have on the united kingdom’s longer term political affect in Europe, asks Peter Hoare.

Norman Smith says:

There are mainly perspectives on what’s going to happen in phrases of clout when outdoor the ecu.

View one is that the uk tasks power and affect within the global, working through corporations comparable to the ecu and that on our own it’ll be a much diminished pressure.

View is that unencumbered through the opposite 27 individuals, the uk can get on with things and start adopting a far extra impartial, self-confident, assertive role at the international stage.

My take is that not so much might be going to switch.

I say that as a result of the united kingdom’ll nonetheless be a member of important firms such as the UN and Nato, and will still be co-working with EUROPEAN companions. for example, there’ll still be close ties on defence with the French.

the united kingdom will still be the similar antique Britain, will still have vital army pressure, will nonetheless be a rich u . s . and will nonetheless be a nuclear energy, so i do not think other folks will suddenly assume the united kingdom’s an entirely other united states.

Are other nations most probably to go away the eu and if this is the case could we commence a brand new unfastened trade space, asks David John.

Kevin Connolly says:

Funnily enough, i was discussing this query just the other day with a French baby-kisser, a conservative and a real Europhile, and he mentioned he concept if there was a unfastened vote in France day after today, as the right wing Nationwide Entrance would like, that the French could vote to leave.

But in most cases speaking i will not see much prospect of a tidal wave of insurrectionist, exitism sweeping the continent. While a country like Eire has a spat with the european about tax, for example, it does annoy Irish politicians, however such a lot mainstream leaders within the Europe have grown up with the speculation that the ecu has introduced peace and prosperity for many years.

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Loads Of them see masses that irritates them about the european Union, however they principally argue that the benefits massively outweigh the irritations. And in countries the place you do find Euroscepticism, reminiscent of Poland and Hungary, there may be also a wholesome consciousness that there are huge financial advantages to club.

As for the future, we will see. If the united kingdom have been to get an implausible Brexit deal then possibly others would be tempted to go.

however the truth is, a number of Eu politicians need the eu to be difficult with Britain exactly to forestall different international locations from following it during the door.

As to Britain forming its own unfastened business area, i feel it sort of feels a very long shot and on stability it’s unlikely, now not least as a result of there are not that many free international locations around available to recruit into some other free business house.

Britain could most likely sign up for the Unfastened Industry Affiliation along side Norway, Lichtenstein and Switzerland. However in fact it would be becoming a member of under existing rules, so the likeliest future for a submit-Brexit UNITED KINGDOM, i think, is a future the place it attempts to do the most productive deal conceivable with the ecu and then seems to be round for other unfastened trade offers.

However that would fall wanting creating a unfastened trade space according to the uk itself.

what’s going to occur to the borders in Gibraltar and northerly Eire, asks Nigel May.

Kevin Connolly says:

i believe the query of what goes to occur to borders after Brexit is one of probably the most tough of the lot.

Since 1985 while Spain joined the eu, it has principally been prevented from closing the border with Gibraltar as a way of applying drive to the British territory.

In truth, 12,000 Spanish folks cross into the territory to work every day and the world of Spain around Gibraltar is an attractive depressed area so they are essential jobs.

On the opposite hand, the Spanish have talked brazenly approximately this being a possibility to get Gibraltar back. Jose Manuel Garcia-Margallo, its minister of international affairs, said in September the uk’s vote to depart the eu was “a novel historic chance in greater than three hundred years to get Gibraltar back”.

However at a minimal, as issues stand, it looks to me as though they may indisputably re-impose border controls if they selected to.

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the placement with Ireland’s border is extra complicated.

For those of us for whom Northern Eire is house, the full disappearance of army test points at the border is one in every of the most tangible daily reminders of the tip of the concerns and no person needs a border like that back.

However, while the day comes while Eire is in the european and the united kingdom isn’t, then the Irish border in fact may be going to be the uk’s land border with the ecu Union.

Conservative chief Theresa May has said we don’t see a return to the borders of the prior, however the truth is that if Britain leaves the typical customs area, then possibly a few sort of checks are going to be essential on that border.

And if the uk wants to stop Polish or Romanian migrant workers the use of Dublin airport as a back door into the united kingdom, then it is going to have to do one thing approximately that too. the united kingdom has published a paper commencing its most popular options.

Of route, what it’s going to all imply for cities and villages like Belleek and Belcoo in County Fermanagh, which more or much less straddle the border, is tricky to imagine.

How will get admission to to healthcare modification for expats dwelling in the eu, asks Veronique Bradley, who lives in Italy.

Kevin Connolly says:

Healthcare is one in every of the ones issues that is still slightly easy as lengthy as the united kingdom remains in the eu.

It’s just part of a spread of voters’ rights that observe around the whole union. After Brexit, I Suppose there might be possibilities.

The first and highest can be that the negotiators come up with a reciprocal deal that assists in keeping the current preparations, or one thing a little like them, in place.

If they don’t, the location will depend on the individual country the place you reside.

For the Bradleys in Italy, for instance, residents from non-EU international locations, and with a view to soon come with the Brits, will have to finalise their residency standing, achieve an Italian identity card after which practice for an Italian medical health insurance card.

If they discuss with the uk at the second, get right of entry to to the NHS for non-resident Brits is not straightforward unless you could have a european medical insurance card.

the precise to treatment relies on residency, no longer to your tax standing.

So, even when you reside in another country and pay a few British tax on a purchase-to-permit belongings for instance, you could end up getting a invoice for any NHS treatment you end up getting whilst you’re back in the united kingdom.

what is going to occur to EU nationals who lived and labored in the united kingdom and now obtain a British state pension, asks Peter Barz, a German citizen dwelling in the united kingdom.

Norman Smith says:

For Those Who are an ecu national and also you get a British state pension, not anything so much will have to amendment, since the state pension is dependent no longer on the place you return from, however on how long you might have paid National Insurance Coverage contributions in the uk.

So it doesn’t matter whether you come back from Lithuania or Latvia or Transylvania or Timbuktu, what counts is how much you have paid in terms of National Insurance contributions.

there may be one wrinkle though and that may be that you simply have to have paid in for a minimum of 10 years.

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Under the current laws, for those who are an ecu citizen and have not paid in for 10 years, you can aspect to any contributions you have made to your native united states of america and say, “I paid in there”, and in an effort to count.

That works for ECU international locations and some other 16 international locations with which the united kingdom has social safety agreements.

Once we’ve left the eu, you are going to now not have the option to do that unless we negotiate new reciprocal agreements.

If we don’t then probably, in the event you have paid in fewer than than 10 years’ price of Nationwide Insurance Coverage contributions, you is not going to get a British state pension.

Is it imaginable to be both an eu citizen and not an ecu citizen, asks Declan O’Neill, who holds an Irish passport.

Kevin Connolly says:

I will have to more than likely declare a few form of interest here as a dual Irish and British nationwide myself.

Of course, someone born in Northern Ireland has an absolute right to hold both passports.

Declan might be happy to grasp that this is one of the few questions where i cannot see a drawback as lengthy as you might be satisfied and snug wearing both passports.

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The Irish document way you proceed to revel in the benefits of ECU citizenship, and the British passport will come up with full rights in the uk at the comparable time.

Call it certainly one of the clear joys of coming from Northern Ireland, alongside the rolling hills, rugged beach and relaxing breaks between the showers.

All you have to do is needless to say to carry the Irish passport while you’re joining the eu electorate-only queue at the airport in future.

Is there a get-out clause for Article 50, asks Gillian Coates.

Norman Smith says:

i believe the honest resolution is you possibly can have to be a felony eagle to respond to this.

However my tackle it’s that legally it seems like when we trigger Article 50 we’re locked in, and that may be definitely how the eu Parliament reads it.

And there is a view that if we had been on this two-year process after triggering Article 50 and we desired to get out of it, then ultimately that could be a call for the european Court Docket of Justice.

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Alternatively, within the real global i think it’s more likely to be fairly different, whatever the legal protocol.

i believe the truth is, if we had been trundling alongside and decided it was once all going to be catastrophic and we have were given to drag up the handbrake lovely sharpish, a lot of different EUROPEAN countries would be most definitely be guffawing at us, however i think on the comparable time they might almost definitely be relatively happy we weren’t going.

So i believe the fast answer is: legally, it does not look so just right if you happen to need to get out of it, but politically, it most probably can be done with the give a boost to of different Ecu leaders.

Eric Degerland asks while UK passports are going to modify.

Kevin Connolly says:

This takes us to the guts of a subject that loads of people really care about. It can be an actual and palpable signal of Brexit while there is a new UK passport without the words “European Union” on the entrance duvet.

Sadly, the short answer is we do not actually recognise while the modification will come about.

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But we can say that the cheapest factor for the government to do would be to section within the new passports as other folks’s old ones expire.

So if you happen to’re having a look ahead to getting back that blue laborious-back passport we had in the old days, you will have a protracted time to wait.

The BBC’s Truth Take A Look At crew answered a few of your questions approximately Theresa May’s plans for EU citizens dwelling in the uk.

Will Irish electorate be exempt from this 5-yr residency requirement, and proceed to be afforded equivalent treatment with UNITED KINGDOM nationals?

Sure, Irish voters living in the united kingdom is not going to wish to apply for settled status to protect their entitlements as the uk government is devoted to protecting the average Go Back And Forth Area arrangements.

Would EUROPEAN electorate nonetheless find a way to move to the united kingdom within the next two years until March 2019?

Sure, they would. the united kingdom is a member of the ecu until it withdraws, so the liberty of movement rules will follow until then.

Why will not British courts have complete jurisdiction over the rights of ECU voters dwelling in the united kingdom? Wasn’t that the entire aspect of Brexit?

the uk executive says the eu Court of Justice won’t have jurisdiction over ECU voters’ rights. the ecu calls for that it does. this is the most important sticking element in the Brexit negotiations.

How can a life-time keep be guaranteed? Could a long run government change the law?

As Soon As the uk leaves the ecu, any future executive will in concept give you the chance to propose amendments to the rules and the united kingdom Parliament may come to a decision on the new regulation.

I plan to retire to France within the subsequent years and buy a property. Will this be conceivable after Brexit?

You’ll purchase belongings and retire anywhere in the global, matter to the rules of the rustic you’re retiring in. So, you’ll be able to give you the chance to do this however we do not recognise what your actual rights shall be until the united kingdom and EUROPEAN conclude the citizens’ rights negotiations.

I’m an eu nationwide dwelling in the uk but my wife is from out of doors the eu. Is her status going to switch?

Your wife, as a family member of an eligible EUROPEAN citizen who has been resident in the uk sooner than we go away the ecu, may even be eligible to use for settled standing with you, provided that she too meets the payment criteria and has been in a genuine courting with you at the same time as resident in the uk.

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