Brexit: Key dates and potential hurdles

Dominic Raab and Michel Barnier Image copyright EPA

Whilst MPs go back from their summer season recess, Britain’s departure from the eu might be rapid drawing near. listed below are the key dates and parliamentary battles at the street to Brexit.


20 September – EU leaders are expected to discuss Brexit, even though an entire summit has been ruled out 17-18 October – EU summit. This has been noticed as a time limit for an settlement starting off the phrases of UK-EUROPEAN “divorce” – the so-known as withdrawal agreement – to allow enough time for the united kingdom Parliament and the ecu Parliament to ratify it. A political assertion at the long term courting among the united kingdom and the eu is also expected at this aspect November – The European has steered this month is the latest a deal could be finalised. there’s speculation that an emergency EU summit on Brexit could be held in this month, if a withdrawal agreement and a assertion at the future courting don’t seem to be reached in October If a deal has been agreed, MPs will likely be asked to approve it THIRTEEN-14 December – EUROPEAN summit. If a deal has no longer been performed by way of October, this is the fallback option if the two aspects nonetheless need to reach an agreement


Ratification of the withdrawal settlement via the uk Parliament and the european Parliament.

21 January – If the federal government has now not introduced its withdrawal settlement through this date, powers for MPs to persuade ministers’ subsequent steps will kick in 21-22 March – The Overall summit that the united kingdom is anticipated to wait as a member of the european Sooner Than 29 March – Parliament may have to move the ecu Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Bill to put in force the withdrawal settlement, assuming it was authorized by means of Parliament in advance 29 March, at 2300 GMT – THE UNITED KINGDOM leaves the european. a special summit of the 27 other EUROPEAN countries quickly after the uk’s exit is expected, however has now not yet been scheduled 23-26Might Elections for the eu Parliament in 27 ECU international locations (the uk will no longer be represented in the parliament)


31 December – If all goes to plot, this might be the remaining date of the transition period

Parliamentary battles

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Vote on the Withdrawal Settlement

What Is it?

If and when ministers go back with a deal, MPs will vote on the withdrawal settlement and the framework for the future partnership. this may occasionally act because the “significant vote” promised to MPs by means of the top minister.

The regulations surrounding what happens if things don’t pass to plan have been written into legislation in the Withdrawal Act: In The event that MPs refuse to approve the withdrawal settlement or no deal is reached through 21 January 2019, the government could have to offer its plans for subsequent steps to Parliament. MPs will then give you the chance to vote to recommend the observation.

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Secondary regulation

What’s it?

Beneath the Withdrawal Invoice, the government has the facility to make adjustments to regulations that need to occur sooner than Brexit day. that is known as secondary regulation and is frequently used to make small technical changes to regulations. However opposition politicians have warned that over the top use of these powers may well be undemocratic.


The powers are contained within the Withdrawal Act. But after MPs voted for Mr Grieve’s modification, ministers won’t be allowed to make use of the powers till the Withdrawal Settlement Bill has been handed.


What’s it?

The Final withdrawal settlement could have to be ratified as a global treaty. the federal government has to give international treaties to each Homes of Parliament. If neither Space increases objections, the treaty is handed and doesn’t necessarily must be debated or voted on.

If there is an objection, ministers have 21 days to give an explanation for the merits of the treaty, earlier than presenting it to Parliament once more. this may technically be repeated a few times.


the government has mentioned the treaty can have to be ratified sooner than the withdrawal settlement can “input into pressure”.

Potential flashpoints

It is not likely that there could be a vote – and even a debate – on the treaty, seeing as the issues can have already been debated and voted on in the significant vote. Theoretically, Parliament may just vote against the treaty, however it won’t have the option to amend it.

Of direction, this all depends on them having a treaty to ratify…

What’s left to make your mind up?

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The Eu and the united kingdom must agree at the phrases of the united kingdom’s departure – in addition as agreeing the description for the trading relationship they may have after Brexit.

A selection of sticking issues remain.

here are the principle issues that want to be taken care of out (there are a lot of smaller ones too – you’ll be able to learn more approximately those right here).

Northern Ireland

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this is the biggest sticking point.

Both facets have dedicated to keeping off the return of a hard border, together with physical infrastructure or related assessments and controls, between Republic of eire and northern Ireland.

They need to do so by means of agreeing a new trade care for the continuation of open borders. But in the adventure that that is not possible either side have agreed to have a “backstop” resolution that may stay the Irish border open.

Brussels’ proposed solution may see Northern Eire persist with those rules of the customs union and unmarried market which are required for pass-border co-operation to continue.

But the united kingdom executive is in contrast thought, saying it could successfully separate Northern Ireland from the remainder of the uk and create a border in the Irish Sea.

Instead the united kingdom would like to see the backstop apply to the entire UK, however negotiators are yet to seek out a solution that may be acceptable to both sides.

Gibraltar and Cyprus

The aspects must still agree on what terms Gibraltar can be in a position to take part within the transition settlement.

The Ecu’s negotiating guidelines state that “no settlement among the ecu and the Uk would possibly apply to the territory of Gibraltar without the agreement between the dominion of Spain and the United Kingdom”, which some have interpreted as the ecu giving the Spanish veto over the final deal.

Madrid is claimed to be in quest of joint management of Gibraltar’s airport and greater co-operation on tax fraud and tobacco smuggling in go back for allowing the withdrawal agreement to cover the Rock.

THE UNITED KINGDOM and the european will also must find a answer for British military bases in Cyprus.


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THE UK has set store through setting up a high stage of co-operation on security issues, like counter-terrorism and the struggle against organised crime, with the ecu after Brexit.

But there are vital disagreements approximately how this will paintings – and the eu’s decision to exclude the united kingdom from the Galileo satellite machine on security grounds used to be said by way of the uk to show a scarcity of trust.

THE UK thinks that co-operation on extradition, the British relationship with the eu crime-combating agency Europol and the sharing of legal records have to be the subject of a separate security treaty which the 2 aspects will have to begin negotiating in an instant.

UK needs £1bn Galileo costs back from ECU Theresa May security pledge at EU summit

Business disputes

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that is some other factor that would bring the whole deal down, in line with Michel Barnier.

THE UNITED KINGDOM is devoted to pulling out of the european Courtroom of Justice, the mechanism used to settle disputes among member states by decoding and imposing single market regulations – however it does wish to stay with reference to a few of the ecu’s laws.

The Ecu has proposed a joint committee made up of representatives appointed by London and Brussels. if they can not remedy an issue, it can be cited the eu Court Docket of Justice.

THE UNITED KINGDOM govt likes the idea of a joint committee however not of the ecu Court of Justice having the general say in all cases and handiest wants certain circumstances referred by the committee to the ECJ.

But take into account that…

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this is how the Brexit process is meant to go – however the united kingdom or the ecu may pull the plug on talks at any time. And, in concept, the uk and the opposite 27 EU contributors could conform to modification the timetable or even halt the method Brexit altogether.

As the european Fee loves to say, “not anything is agreed till everything is agreed”.

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