Egypt profile – Timeline

A chronology of key events:

circa 7000 BC – Settlement of Nile Valley starts.

circa 3000 BC – Kingdoms OF HIGHER and Lower Egypt unite. Successive dynasties witness flourishing trade, prosperity and the improvement of great cultural traditions. Writing, together with hieroglyphics, is used as an instrument of state. Building of the pyramids – round 2,500 BC – is a formidable engineering success.

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Demise masks of Tutankhamun, the boy king who died in 1323 BC

Face of Tutankhamun reconstructed

BBC Historical Past: Tutankhamun

969 – Cairo established as capital.

1250-1517 – Mameluke (slave soldier) rule, characterized via great prosperity and neatly-ordered civic institutions.

1517 – Egypt absorbed into the Turkish Ottoman empire.

1798 – Napoleon Bonaparte’s forces invade but are repelled by way of the British and the Turks in 1801.

1805 – Ottoman Albanian commander Muhammad Ali establishes dynasty that regulations until 1952, even though nominally a part of the Ottoman Empire.

1859-SIXTY NINE – Suez Canal built, but it and different infrastructure initiatives close to-bankrupt Egypt and lead to gradual British takeover.

1882 – British troops defeat Egyptian military and take keep an eye on of usa.

1914 – Egypt officially becomes a British protectorate.

Independence restored

1922 – Fuad I turns into King and Egypt gains independence, despite the fact that British affect continues to be vital until mid-nineteen fifties.

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President Gamal Abdel Nasser become a hero of the Arab international after nationalising the Suez Canal

How Suez made Nasser an Arab icon

1928 – Muslim Brotherhood founded by Hassan al-Banna, who used to be killed in 1949. Campaigns to reorient Egypt and whole Muslim Heart East clear of Western influence.

1948 – Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Syria assault the brand new state of Israel. Egyptian military’s terrible performance increases unpopularity of King Farouk.

1949 – Committee of the Free Officers’ Movement formed to overthrow corrupt monarchy.

1952 January – No Less Than 20 individuals are killed in anti-British riots in Cairo.

1952 July – Coup by the Loose Officers’ Motion. Farouk abdicates in favour of his infant son Ahmed Fuad II.

Rise of Nasser

1953 June – Coup leader Muhammad Najib becomes president as Egypt is asserted a republic.

1954 – Fellow coup leader Gamal Abdel Nasser turns into top minister and in 1956 president, ruling unchallenged until his demise in 1970.

1954 – Evacuation Treaty signed. British forces, who started a steady withdrawal underneath 1936 treaty after all depart Egypt.1955 – Top Minister Nasser reorients Egypt clear of West against neutrality, buys hands from Communist Czechoslovakia to re-equip army after Western powers refuse to accomplish that on terms acceptable to Egypt.

1956 January – Egypt and Britain relinquish regulate over Sudan, dependent at finish of nineteenth century.

1956 July – President Nasser nationalises the Suez Canal to fund the Aswan Top Dam, after Britain and US withdraw financing.

1956 October-November – Invasion of Egypt by means of Britain, France and Israel over nationalisation of Suez Canal fails via US competition, greatly enhancing President Nasser’s standing at house and abroad.

1958 – President Nasser steps up campaign to advertise pan-Arab cohesion, most visible indicators of that have been transient United Arab Republic unitary state including Syria (1958-SIXTY ONE). He also supports friendly components in Lebanese and North Yemen conflicts to little avail.

1961-66 – President Nasser adopts socialist insurance policies, including nationalisation of trade and an bold welfare programme, mixed with repression of Muslim Brotherhood and leftist warring parties, in an unsuccessful attempt to spice up the financial system and the recognition of his executive.

1967 Would Possibly – Egypt expels UN buffer forces from Sinai and closes the Straits of Tiran to Israeli ships, then sign defence pact with Jordan. Israel interprets this as practise for warfare.

1967 June – Israeli pre-emptive attack defeats Egypt, Jordan and Syria, leaving it up to speed of Sinai up to the Suez Canal and Egyptian-occupied Gaza.Emergency Legislation in large part suspends civil rights. Continues To Be in pressure with temporary holiday in early eighties till 2012.

Sadat presidency

1970 September – Nasser dies, having never recovered his major position among Arab states after the 1967 defeat, and is succeeded by means of Vice-President, Anwar al-Sadat.

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President Anwar al-Sadat signed a peace deal with Israel

1981: Egypt’s President Sadat assassinated

Film on Sadat gets mixed reactions

1971 – The Aswan High Dam is done, with Soviet investment, and has an enormous impact on irrigation, agriculture and industry in Egypt.

1972 – President Sadat expels Soviet advisers and reorients Egypt towards the West, even as launching an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to open the economy to marketplace forces and international investment.

1973 October – Egypt and Syria go to war with Israel to reclaim land lost in 1967. Egypt starts negotiations for the return of Sinai after the conflict.

1975 June – The Suez Canal is re-opened for first time considering 1967 struggle.

1977 January – “Bread riots” in leading cities towards end to subsidies on basic foodstuffs underneath agreement with World Bank and International Financial Fund.

1977 October – President Sadat visits Israel, starting process that ends up in 1979 peace treaty, go back of occupied Sinai Peninsula, and Egypt’s suspension from Arab League until 1989. Egypt turns into top beneficiary of us financial aid.

1981 October – President Sadat assassinated by Islamist extremists month after clampdown on personal press and opposition groups in wake of anti-govt riots. Succeeded by way of Vice-President Hosni Mubarak.

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Based in 1928, the Muslim Brotherhood is Egypt’s oldest, greatest Islamist service provider

Profile: Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood

2005 Might – Referendum backs constitutional amendment permitting a couple of applicants at presidential elections, after months of competition protests.

2005 July – Rankings of individuals are killed in bomb attacks in the Purple Sea resort of Sharm al-Sheikh as Islamists resume terror assaults.

2005 December – Parliamentary polls finish with clashes among police and supporters of the competition Muslim Brotherhood, who win report 20% of seats by means of standing as independents.

2006 April – Bomb attacks within the Crimson Sea resort of Dahab kill more than 20 other folks.

2006 November – Egypt is one in all a minimum of six Arab international locations growing household nuclear programmes to diversify energy resources, the World Atomic Energy Company (IAEA) reviews.

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Cairo is facing rising Islamist militancy within the northern Sinai

Preventing extremism in Egypt’s Sinai

2008 April – Army courts sentence 25 top Muslim Brotherhood individuals to prison terms in crackdown targeting the agency’s funding. greater than 800 arrested over a month. Brotherhood boycotted municipal elections after simplest 20 candidates allowed to stand.

2009 February – Prime competition figure Ayman Nour freed after serving three years of five-yr sentence on forgery fees that he mentioned have been politically motivated.

2009 August – Twenty-six contributors of an alleged cellular telephone of the Lebanese militant workforce Hezbollah pass on trial in Cairo on charges of plotting assaults in Egypt and helping to ship guns to Hamas in Gaza.

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So Much of Egypts’ Christian minority belong to the Coptic Church.

Christianity within the Middle East