As Soon As house to a number of pre-colonial empires, the landlocked, arid West African united states of america of Mali is certainly one of the most important on the continent. for hundreds of years, its northern city of Timbuktu was a key nearby trading publish and centre of Islamic tradition.
But this prominence has lengthy in view that faded.
After independence from France in 1960, Mali suffered droughts, rebellions, a coup and 23 years of military dictatorship until democratic elections in 1992.
In 2013, France intervened militarily upon the government’s request following the seize of the city of Konna and its troops overran Islamist strongholds.
Authorities agreed a United International Locations-backed ceasefire with Tuareg separatists in 2015, however portions of the rustic stay hectic, with Tuareg rebels sporadically energetic.
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Ibrahim Boubacar Keita took place of work in September 2013, promising to help unify the rustic after a rebellion, a coup and an Islamic insurgency.
He received the primary election held because mutinous soldiers overthrew long-time President Amadou Toumani Toure early in 2012.
The son of a civil servant, Keita used to be born in 1945 in the southern industrial city of Koutiala, the declining heartland of cotton production in the rustic.
He served as top minister from 1994 to 2000 and as Speaker of the Nationwide Meeting from 2002 to 2007.
Mr Keita is seeking a 2nd term within the 29 July 2018 election.
Symbol copyright Getty Photographs Symbol caption The Great mosque of Djenne is certainly one of the continent’s most striking landmarks
Mali’s broadcast and print media have been long hailed as being among the freest in Africa.
But the media had been dealt a blow by means of the 2012 army coup and an insurgency within the north.
Radio is the top medium. There are loads of stations, run by way of the state to boot as by means of private and community operators.
Learn complete media profile
Some key dates in Mali’s history:
Symbol copyright Getty Photographs Symbol caption The Niger River serves as the country’s primary shipping and business artery
11th century – Empire of Mali becomes dominant force within the upper Niger basin.
14th-fifteenth centuries – Decline of the Empire of Mali, which loses dominance of the gold industry to the Songhai Empire.
Late 16th century – Moroccans defeat the Songhai, make Timbuktu their capital and rule till their decline in the 18th century.
1898 – France completes conquest of Mali, then called French Sudan.
1960 – Mali becomes impartial with Modibo Keita as president. It turns into a one-birthday celebration, socialist state.
2012 – Coup and then Islamist opponents seize a number of towns. France intervenes militarily and recaptures key towns from the rebels.
2015 November – Islamist gunmen assault the Radisson Blu resort in the capital Bamako.
Image copyright Getty Pictures Symbol caption French troops intervened after Islamists seized parts of Mali in 2012 Read complete timeline