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WHO’RE Nigeria’s Boko Haram Islamist workforce?

WHO’RE Nigeria’s Boko Haram Islamist workforce?
15 December 2018 - 0:31 'was also added 297 Viewed.
A screengrab taken on 13 July 2014 from a video released by the Nigerian Islamist extremist group Boko Haram and obtained by AFP shows the leader of the Nigerian Islamist extremist group Boko Haram, Abubakar Shekau (C).Image copyright AFP Symbol caption Abubakar Shekau (centre) pledged allegiance to the Islamic State group nevertheless it later disowned him

Nigeria’s militant Islamist team Boko Haram – which has led to havoc in Africa’s most populous us of a thru a wave of bombings, assassinations and abductions – is preventing to overthrow the government and create an Islamic state.

Boko Haram promotes a version of Islam which makes it “haram”, or forbidden, for Muslims to take part in any political or social process associated with Western society.

This includes voting in elections, dressed in shirts and trousers or receiving a mundane education.

Boko Haram regards the Nigerian state as being run through non-believers, without reference to whether the president is Muslim or not – and it has extended its military campaign via concentrated on neighbouring states.

Image copyright AFP Image caption Boko Haram has attacked many faculties in northern Nigeria Symbol copyright AFP Image caption The Group launched its insurgency in 2009

The Group’s professional name is Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad, which in Arabic way “Folks Dedicated to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad”.

Image caption Boko Haram’s founding leader Mohammed Yusuf was once killed in police custody in 2009 Based in 2002 Reputable Arabic name, Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad, method “People Dedicated to the Propagation of the Prophet’s Teachings and Jihad” Initially considering opposing Western training Launched army operations in 2009 to create Islamic state Special a terrorist group through US in 2013 Declared a caliphate in spaces it controlled in 2014 So Much territory now recaptured by way of military

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Recruiting flooring

because the Sokoto caliphate, which ruled parts of what’s now northern Nigeria, Niger and southern Cameroon, fell under British keep an eye on in 1903, there has been resistance among a few of the area’s Muslims to Western training.

Many nonetheless refuse to send their kids to executive-run “Western faculties”, a problem compounded through the ruling elite which does not see education as a priority.

by contrast history, charismatic Muslim cleric Mohammed Yusuf shaped Boko Haram in Maiduguri in 2002. He arrange a religious complicated, which integrated a mosque and an Islamic school.

Many terrible Muslim households from throughout Nigeria, besides as neighbouring international locations, enrolled their children on the faculty.

However Boko Haram was once not only occupied with training. Its political purpose was to create an Islamic state, and the college was a recruiting floor for jihadis.

Symbol copyright AFP Image caption A neighborhood coalition has recaptured so much territory from Boko Haram

However its opponents regrouped below a brand new leader, Abubakar Shekau, and stepped up their insurgency.

In 2013, the united states targeted it a terrorist service provider, amid fears that it had developed hyperlinks with different militant teams, comparable to al-Qaeda within the Islamic Maghreb, to wage a world jihad.

Facial marks

Boko Haram’s trademark was at first the use of gunmen on motorbikes, killing police, politicians and any individual who criticised it, including clerics from different Muslim traditions and Christian preachers.

The Crowd then started to carry out more audacious attacks in northern and crucial Nigeria, including bombing churches, bus ranks, bars, army barracks or even the police and UN headquarters in the capital, Abuja.

Amid rising fear about the escalating violence, the federal government declared a state of emergency in Might 2013 within the three northern states where Boko Haram was once strongest – Borno, Yobe and Adamawa.

Symbol copyright AFP Image caption A Global campaign used to be launched for the release of the Chobok ladies Symbol copyright AFP Symbol caption Thousands of reinforcements have been sent to Maiduguri

It draws its opponents basically from the Kanuri ethnic group, that’s the largest in the three states. So Much Kanuris have distinctive facial scars and while added to their heavy Hausa accents, they are easily identifiable to others Nigerians.

As a outcome, the militants operate basically within the north-east, the place the terrain is also acquainted to them.

Foreign hyperlinks

The deployment of troops and the formation of vigilante groups drove lots of them out of Maiduguri, their primary city base and they retreated to the huge Sambisa woodland to the south and the Mandara Mountains, with reference to the border with Cameroon.

From there, the gang’s fighters introduced mass assaults on villages and towns, looting, killing, abducting girls and children and conscripting men and boys into their army.

In April 2014, Boko Haram drew global condemnation through abducting more than 200 schoolgirls from Chibok town in Borno state, saying it might treat them as slaves and marry them off – a connection with an historical Islamic belief that women captured in struggle are thought to be conflict booty.

And it switched techniques, beginning to hold on to territory in preference to backing out after an assault.

In August 2014, Mr Shekau declared a caliphate in spaces under Boko Haram’s control, with town of Gwoza its seat of power.

“we are in an Islamic caliphate,” mentioned Mr Shekau, flanked via masked opponents and carrying a gadget gun. “we now have not anything to do with Nigeria. we do not consider on this name.”

Image copyright AFP Symbol caption The violence has compelled tens of millions from their houses

Later, Mr Shekau officially pledged allegiance to the Islamic State (IS) staff, turning his back on al-Qaeda.

IS usual the pledge, naming the territory beneath Boko Haram’s regulate because the Islamic State of West Africa Province and as being a part of the worldwide caliphate it was looking to identify.

Chronic poverty

But via March 2015, Boko Haram had lost all the towns underneath its control as a local coalition – made up of troops from Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger – was shaped to struggle it.

again, Boko Haram retreated to the Sambisa forest, the place the Nigerian military pursued it, releasing hundreds of captives.

Symbol copyright Boko Haram video Image caption IS has declared Abu Musab al-Barnawi Boko Haram’s new chief Symbol copyright AFP Symbol caption Regional forces have stepped up border patrols to reduce infiltration by means of militants

In August 2016, the crowd it appears split, with an IS video saying that Mr Shekau were changed with Abu Musab al-Barnawi, believed to be a son of Boko Haram’s founder.

Mr Shekau disputed this, insisting he was nonetheless accountable.

And in a large wonder, 21 of the Chibok girls, noticed as prized belongings for Mr Shekau, were freed in October 2016 following talks involving the militants, the Nigerian and Swiss governments and the International Committee of the Pink Pass.

However with Amnesty International announcing that a few 2,000 kids remain in captivity, many extra are nonetheless to be freed.

And whilst many fighters had been killed and weapons seized, a few analysts say it is too early to write off Boko Haram.

Boko Haram has outlived other militant teams in northern Nigeria, and has constructed a presence in neighbouring states where it has carried out assaults and has recruited combatants.

It has a drive of thousands of guys – CIA officers have predicted round 9,000 – and cells that specialize in bombings. Through its raids on army bases and banks, it has won keep watch over of huge amounts of weapons and money.

So, the probabilities of it being routed every time soon – regardless of Mr Buhari’s claim that it had been “technically defeated” – are slim, with the region’s power poverty and poor education gadget serving to it gain new recruits.

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